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EVALUATION OF AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR 

A HELICOPTER SIMULATION SYSTEM UTILIZING 
AN INTEGRATED ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT DISPLAY 



William Woodrow Fetzer 



uuuLtY KNOX LIBRARY 

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 




THESIS 



Evaluation of and Operational Procedures 

For a Helicopter Simulation System 

Utilizing an Integrated Electronic 

Instrument Display 

by 

William Woodrow Fetzer, Jr. 



June 197 7 



Thesis Advisor: 



D. M. Layton 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 



T 180044 



UUULt 

NAVAL 



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1. report huuk> 


2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 


3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 


4. TITLE (and Submit) 

Evaluation of and Operational Procedures 
for a Helicopter Simulation System 
Utilizing an Integrated Electronic 
Instrument Display 


5. TYPE OF REPORT ft PERIOO COVERED 

Master's Thesis; 
June 1977 


«. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 


7. authorc*; 

William Woodrow Fetzer, Jr. 


• CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER^) 


f. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ANO ADDRESS 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 


10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK 
AREA * WORK UNIT NUMBERS 


1 1 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 


12. REPORT DATE 

June 1977 


O. NUMBER OF PAGES 

88 


14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME * JkOOHESVK dltlarant from Controlling OHleo) 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 


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Unclassified 


Mm. OECLASSIFI CATION/ DOWNGRADING 
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l«. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol thla Raport) 

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 


17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ol 'ha aftract antarad In Slock 30, II dltlarant from Raport) 


IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 


l>. <EY WORDS (Conitmto on rararaa no* II nacaaaawr and identity by Block nummar) 

instrument flight 
helicopter 
integrated display 


20. ABSTRACT (Confirm— an rararaa aid*. II nacaaamty and Identity or aloek — MNWj 

This report discusses the evaluation and documentation of 
an integrated electronic instrument display designed to inves- 
tigate stability and control of a helicopter during precision 
hover operations. The equations of motion, developed from the 
Kaman SH-2F Seasprite helicopter, were implemented by a hybrid 
computer system and displayed by a graphics processor. A com- 
plete procedural checklist, including troubleshooting methods, 



DD , " Jm ?» 1473 

(Page 1) 



EDITION OF I NOV «S IS OBSOLETE 

S/N 102-014- 6«0 1 I 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOE (Whan Dmtm tntarod) 



fteuwiTv Classification of This •»otrw>,« (">»<• tnu wj 

is included in this report. This helicopter simulation system 
can be used for further research in the development of optimal 
heads-up display configurations as well as analyses of insta- 
bility caused by pilot induced oscillations in the hover flight 
regime . 



DD Form 1473 
1 Jan 73 



UyJULt 

NAVAL 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 



EVALUATION OF AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES 

FOR A HELICOPTER SIMULATION SYSTEM 

UTILIZING AN INTEGRATED ELECTRONIC 

INSTRUMENT DISPLAY 



by 



William Woodrow Fetzer, Jr. 

Lieutenant, Unitecf States Navy 

B.S., United States Naval Academy, 1970 



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 



from the 

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
June 1977 



L 

H bCHOOL 



ABSTRACT 

This report discusses the evaluation and documentation 
of an integrated electronic instrument display designed to 
investigate stability and control of a helicopter during 
precision hover operations. The equations of motion, developed 
from the Kaman SH-2F Seasprite helicopter, were implemented 
by a hybrid computer system and displayed by a graphics 
processor. A complete procedural checklist, including 
troubleshooting methods, is included in this report. This 
helicopter simulation system can be used for further research 
in the development of optimal heads-up display configurations 
as well as analyses of instability caused by pilot induced 
oscillations in the hover flight regime. 



UOULt 

NAVAL 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. INTRODUCTION 9 

II. OBJECTIVE 11 

III. BACKGROUND 12 

IV. THE SIMULATION 13 

A. DESCRIPTION 13 

B. COMPUTER FACILITIES LAYOUT 17 

C. AIRCRAFT DYNAMICS 17 

V. OPERATING PROCEDURES 20 

A. INTRODUCTION 20 

B. ANALOG COMPUTER PROCEDURES 20 

C. GRAPHICS COMPUTER PROCEDURES 23 

D. DIGITAL COMPUTER PROCEDURES 25 

E. COCKPIT SET-UP PROCEDURES 29 

VI. SIMULATION SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES . 31 

A. INTRODUCTION 31 

B. ANALOG COMPUTER PROBLEMS 31 

1. MANUAL POTSETTING 31 

2. OSCILLATING INSTRUMENT DISPLAY .... 32 

3. AMPLIFIER OVERLOADS 32 

C. GRAPHICS COMPUTER PROBLEMS 3 3 

1. GATED NOT EXECUTED 3 3 

2. DISPLAY FAILURE DURING SIMULATION RUN 33 



Page 

D. DIGITAL COMPUTER PROBLEMS 33 

1. SLOW POINTER MOVEMENT ON CRT DISPLAY . 34 

2. CARD READER STOPS AFTER FIRST CARD . . 34 

E. SIMULATOR COCKPIT PROBLEMS 35 

1. POWER DOES NOT COME ON 3 5 

2. COLLECTIVE MECHANISM MISADJUSTED ... 35 

VII. CONCLUSIONS 36 

APPENDIX A ANALOG COMPUTER PROGRAM 38 

APPENDIX B DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM 50 

APPENDIX C DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM FORTRAN 

VARIABLES 72 

APPENDIX D HELICOPTER SIMULATION SYSTEM CHECKLIST . 84 

LIST OF REFERENCES 8 7 

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 88 



LIST OF TABLES 

I. Initial Conditions 

II. Crew Directions 

III. Stability Derivatives 
AI . Use of Trunk Lines 

All. Analog Computer Potentiometer Settings 



LIST OF FIGURES 

1. Integrated Electronic Instrument Display 

2. Naval Postgraduate School Computer Laboratory 

3. Function Switch Location 



I. INTRODUCTION 

The rapid advancement in computer technology has greatly 
improved the development of visual heads -up displays for air- 
craft instrumentation. Microprocessor and graphic technology 
coupled with radar altimeter and Doppler radar systems inputs 
enable designers to create various tactical and navigational 
displays. Perhaps the most difficult task experienced by 
today's helicopter pilot is hovering in instrument flight 
conditions at night. Precision hovering at low altitude and 
low airspeeds requires the utmost skill in instrument flying, 
and the display systems in present-day helicopters are less 
than adequate. 

Reference 1 cited development efforts directed in two 
major areas relative to the precision hover task; increased 
stability and control systems, and navigational displays to 
provide hover information over a fixed position. Among the 
concepts to be examined were a low airspeed sensor system and 
integration of a forward looking infrared radar (FLIR) with a 
CRT-fiber optic display. 

With the advent of these new systems, it is important 
that a display scheme be developed to implement the sensor 
information into a suitable arrangement for precision hover- 
ing. 

The helicopter simulation system described in this report 
does not utilize the latest advances in computer technology. 



However, the basic principles of operation and interface are 
the same. The helicopter pilot controls the flight of the 
aircraft using conventional control signals responding to 
artificial sensor information. This sensor information is 
provided by a hybrid computer system which solves the six 
degree-of -freedom equations of motion and applies them in 
response to initial conditions and pilot controlled inputs. 

The sensor information is relayed to a graphics computer 
which is used as the integrated heads-up display in the cock- 
pit. 

This simulation model has the flexibility to allow the 
student to investigate various display modes for feasibility 
and operability. In addition, stability and control analysis 
of the equations of motion can be examined for optimal control 
in the precision hover mode. 



10 



II. OBJECTIVE 

The basic purposes of this work were to place the heli- 
computer simulator in full working condition, provide 
detailed operating procedures to allow further research into 
the simulation and the heads-up display system, and document 
trouble-shooting techniques and computer operations peculiar 
to the helicopter simulation in order to facilitate future 
research using this system. 



11 



III. BACKGROUND 

The present helicopter simulation system is essentially 
the work of many students. Conversion of the C-11B Instru- 
ment Flight Trainer into a Variable Stability Flight. Simula- 
tor was accomplished by Sweeney and reported in Ref. 2. 
Further work on the equations of motion was conducted by 
Huckemeyer [Ref. 3] . 

The equations of motion for the helicopter were initially 
developed by Hoxie and are contained in Ref. 4. The analog 
patchboard implementing the equations of motion and computer 
interfacing were also done originally by Hoxie. The analog 
diagrams are provided in Appendix A for easy reference. The 
display arrangement and the digital computer program are 
based on the work of Ammerman [Ref. 5]. A complete listing 
of the digital program is provided in Appendix B, and the 
corresponding Fortran variables are listed in Appendix C. 
Small changes in the analog program and the digital program 
were made to correct scaling errors and typographical errors. 
In addition, some components in the Analog computer had to 
be changed because of hardware failures. 



12 



IV. THE SIMULATION 

A. DESCRIPTION 

The object of the simulation run is to fly to a designated 
hover position from a given initial position, altitude and 
airspeed, hover over the position for a specific time and 
depart in a straight-ahead climb. For each run the starting 
position is set by the digital computer program with the 
initial conditions as specified in Table I. A glossary of 
terms may be found in Appendix C. 

As the helicopter nears the designated hover position, 
crew directions are provided by the Crew Direction subroutine 
of the digital program. The Crew Direction subroutine func- 
tions as the "eyes" of the helicopter. The displayed messages 
simulate actual crew commands that are used for hovering 
operations where the pilot is unable to see the hover target. 
A listing of the displayed text commands are included in 
Table II along with the parameters which cause the output 
of the associated messages. The top portion of Figure 1 
shows the display with the helicopter in level flight at an 
altitude of 500 feet and an airspeed of 70 knots. The 
bottom picture of Figure 1 shows how the display appears 
in a 40 foot hover over the target. 



13 



TABLE I 
INITIAL CONDITIONS 



u 




70 KTS 


V 







w 




5.26 ft/sec 


e 




2.55 


4> 







* 







X E 




-4000 yds. 


Y E 







Z E 




500 ft. 


100 


B lc 


1.7687 


200 


A n 


-.9034 



14 



TABLE II 
CREW DIRECTIONS 



TARGET IN SIGHT 

STEADY FORWARD 

EASY FORWARD 

STOP FORWARD 

STEADY HOVER 

STOP BACK 

EASY BACK 

TARGET LOST 

WAVE OFF 

EASY LEFT 

STOP LEFT 

EASY RIGHT 

STOP RIGHT 

MAN ON HOISE 

MAN IN AIRCRAFT 

PULL UP YOU ARE LOW 



XE > -2000 YDS 
XE > -2000 YDS 
XE > -30 YDS 

VX > .3 XE 

3 YDS < XE < 3 YDS 

VX < -.3 XE 

XE > 20 YDS 

XE > 60 YDS 

XE > 60 YDS 

YE < 25 YDS 

VY < -.3 YE 

YE < -25 YDS 

VY > .3 YE 

HOVER TIME > 120 SEC 

HOVER TIME > 150 SEC 

ZE < 15 FT 



15 



p™ ; : 

331 361 131 


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STEADY HOVER 




,. * i !«' •*• 





Figure i. Integrated Electronic Instrument Display 



16 



B. COMPUTER FACILITIES LAYOUT 

The helicopter simulation system is comprised of three 
main computing systems which are described in detail in 
Ref. 6. Each of these components (shown in Figure 2) is an 
integral part of the system, linked by a network of interfaces 
and trunklines. In addition, a television camera, placed in 
front of the appropriate graphics display console, is linked 
by cable to a television repeater in the cockpit. 

C. AIRCRAFT DYNAMICS 

The stability derivatives and equations of motion used 
for this simulator are taken from the SH-2F "Seasprite" 
helicopter produced by the Kaman Aerospace Corporation. The 
equations of motion were developed by Hoxie [Ref. 4] and 
modified slightly by Ammerman [Ref. 5] . The normalized sta- 
bility derivatives were supplied by Kaman and are listed 
in Table III. 



17 



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18 



OJCTS. 30 KTS . 50 KTS . 70 KTS . 91 KTS . 112 KTS . 136 KTS . 

X A (u) .2328 -1.501 -3.814 -6.84? -10.62 -15.51 

1 ( u ) 25.06 22.88 29.96 19.94 17.55 17.62 20.45 

Z A (u) -9.272 -5.85^ .6023 6.55^ 18.76 34.34 

Z^u) -.4045 -.5092 -.5843 -.6368 -.6682 -.6875 -.6928 

Z B (u) 4.5^7 35.35 64.79 97.41 131.1 164.4 197.4 

I^u) -.0215 -.0261 -.0298 -.0352 -.0409 -.0464 -.0519 

M A (u) .1417 .1940 .2244 .2610 .2456 .1835 

Mo (u) -12.17 -12.22 -12.34 -12.54 -12.82 -13.04 -12.15 
°lc 

N (u) -.5871 -.7410 -.8881 -1.080 -I.269 -1.447 -1.622 

^(u) .0172 .0202 .0227 .0272 .0312 .0352 .0399 



I A (0) 


2. 806 


yo) 


.8689 


V°) 


.0491 


Sc (0) 


40.13 


z A (0) 


-32.08 


V 0) 


.5228 


V 0) 


-2C8.2 


M q (0) 


-.7853 


V°) 


-.0002 


V 0) 


.7789 


Y Y (0) 


-.0338 



Y p (0) -1.139 

Y r (0) .9627 

? A (0) 42.63 
*lc 

Y fl (0) 18.16 

Lp(0) -2.425 

LJO) .4082 

IT 

L. (0) 36.51 
*lc 

L fl (0) 7.075 

N p (0) -.0072 

\ (0) 1.877 
A lc 



v o) 



-11.86 



TABLE III 
STABILITY DERIVATIVES 

19 



V. OPERATING PROCEDURES 

A. INTRODUCTION 

A system operating checklist for the Fixed-Base heli- 
copter simulator is presented in Appendix D. A copy of this 
checklist is also located in the simulator cockpit. The 
basic operating procedures for each individual computing 
system are presented in Ref. 6. However, there are no 
specific operating instructions for the helicopter simula- 
tion system which includes items peculiar to the simulator. 
This section includes a step by step discussion of the pro- 
cedures necessary for simulator operation. The system could 
be run entirely from this presentation. However, the 
operator should carefully read the start-up and shut-down 
procedures [Ref. 6] for each individual system prior to 
attempting the first run. In addition, the assistance of a 
laboratory technician should be requested for a familiariza- 
tion run. 

B. ANALOG COMPUTER PROCEDURES 

1. Install patch boards (numbered 8) on the COMCOR 
CI-5000 Analog Computer. The patch boards are located 
in cabinets behind the CI-5000 mainframe. Make sure 
that the guide rollers are positioned properly, and 
place the latching handles in the vertical position. 



20 



2. Turn the CI-5000 power switch on. The switch is 
located in the lower left corner of the operators display 
console . 

3. Set potentionmeter (POT) 400 to +20.00 volts. This 
POT is set manually using the appropriate calibrated 
dial located to the left of the analog patch board. To 
monitor the POT setting, the following procedure must be 
followed using the operator's keyboard directly in front 
of the display console: 

a. Press KEY BOARD and POTSET mode switches in 
sequence . 

b. Press POT PS class switch. 

c. Press the desired numbers in sequence for the 
proper address. P400 should appear in the address 
window in the upper left corner of the display con- 
sole. The value of the potentiometer setting will 
appear in the RATIOMETER window of the display 
console. The manual dial is then rotated until 
+20.00 appears on the ratiometer. 

4. Set POT 401 to +20.00 volts. This is accomplished in 
much the same manner as in the previous step. However, 
pressing the ADV key of the address keyboard will advance 
the potentionmeter address to P401. The appropriate 
manual dial is then rotated until +20.00 appears on the 
ratiometer . 

5. Set POT 437 to +30.00 volts. Press 437 on the address 
keyboard and proceed as in the previous step. 



21 



6. Set limiters LOO and L07 to + 1.0 volts. The limiters 
are set in a similar fashion to the manual potentiometers. 
The limiter setting dials are located above the handset 
potentiometers. In order to monitor the limiter settings, 
the following steps must be followed: 

a. Press AMP on the operators keyboard. 

b. Press the appropriate amplifier address (002 for 
LOO and 060 for L07) . A002 should appear in the 
address window. 

Adjust the limiter by pressing the center limiter switch 
toward the positive dial. While holding the switch in 
the positive direction, turn the dial until +01.00 
appears in the ratiometer window of the operators display 
console. Then move the switch to the negative side, and 
obtain a value of -01.00 in the ratiometer window. Pro- 
ceed in a similar manner to adjust limiter L07. Ampli- 
fier A060 is used in conjunction with L07. 

7. Center all Digital Function Switches. These switches 
are located between the analog patchboard and the logic 
patchboard. The Digital Function Switches are parallel 
to the cockpit switches and can be used to control the 
simulation from the CI5000 control console. Centering 
these switches prevents inadvertant control signals from 
entering the computer. 

8. The CI -5000 Analog Computer System is now properly 
set-up. Press the DIGITAL CMPTR mode switch which 

links the CI-5000 Analog Computer to the XDS-9300 Digital 



22 



computer. When the DIGITAL CMPTR mode is selected, no 
controls from the operators keyboard will be received. 
To use the operators keyboard for manual potsetting or 
for addressing amplifiers, pots or trunklines, the 
KEYBOARD key must be pressed to place the analog computer 
in a "stand alone mode." 

C. GRAPHICS COMPUTER PROCEDURES 

1. Turn on rhe XDS-9300 computer. Before the Adage 
AGT-10 graphics computer can be linked to the XDS-9300 
digital computer, the XDS-9300 must be energized. Com- 
plete start-up procedures for the XDS-9300 are included 
in Ref. 6. However, to simply turn it on, press the 
RESET and POWER switches simultaneously. The XDS-9300 
usually remains on during normal working hours, there- 
fore, this step may not be necessary. 

2. Place the OLD AMOS discs on the appropriate AGT-10 
disc drive. The disc drives are located in the northeast 
corner of the computer laboratory, and the discs can be 
found in an adjacent cabinet. The serial numbers corres- 
ponding to the OLD AMOS discs are posted on each disc drive 
along with the installation instructions. 

3. Turn the disc drive on by pressing the POWER ON/START 
switch. When the disc drive attains the proper operating 
RPM, the READY light should come on. 

4. Turn on the circuit breaker located on the back of 
the appropriate AGT-10 mainframe. The circuit breaker is 
identified by a "This is it" label. 

23 



5. At the front of the AGT-10 mainframe is the Operator's 
Control Panel (OCP) . Press the following control switches 
in sequence: 

a. HALT 

b . RESET 

c. RUN 

d. PULSE 1 

6. Upon activation of the PULSE 1 switch, the teletype- 
writer (TTY) should type MO/DA/YR on the TTY located in 
front of the desired display console. If this message 
does not appear, follow the bootstrap loading instructions 
attached to the AGT-10 OCP. 

7. If the white BREAK light is on at the TTY, press the 
red BRK RLS key prior to typing the date. Type 7/7/77 
on the TTY and press the return button. 

8. Type RESET ("GATED", 101)! on the TTY. The disc 
drive will then cycle and the TTY carriage will return. 
A memory map should be displayed on the CRT. 

9. After the carriage returns, type GATED! This causes 
the program "GATED" to be executed. GATED performs three 
functions. It refreshes the display, communicates with 
the operator, and communicates with the graphics sub- 
routines in the XDS-9300. 

10. To determine if GATED has been loaded and is execut- 
ing properly , press function switch "1" located in the 
upper left corner of the ADAGE function switch keyboard. 
This switch corresponds to the TEXT EDIT switch of the 



24 



GATED overlay shown in Figure 3. The message, "TEXT 
BLOCK SELECT MODE BLOCK 1," should be displayed on the 
lower ledge of the screen. If this text line does not 
appear, verify that the XDS-9300 is on, return to step 5 
and continue from there. 

D. DIGITAL COMPUTER PROCEDURES 

1. Load the "HEIO SIMULATION" tape on either of the two 
SDS tape drives. The tapes are stored in row three of the 
tape file cabinet located to the left of the XDS-9300 
mainframe. Tape number two contains a core dump of the 
program contained in Appendix B. Tape number one is the 
same program except that PSIDTS scaling has been changed 
to equal 28.65 PSIDOT. Mount the tape by following the 
threading guide located on the tape drive doors. Refer 

to Ref. 6, Section I, Part II for additional instructions. 

2. Run the tape forward to the load point. This is accom- 
plished with the mode selector in the MANUAL READ posi- 
tion. Press and release the FORWARD DRIVE switch. The 
tape should move forward until the LOAD POINT light comes 
on . 

3. Set the Mode Selector switch to AUTOMATIC. The UNIT 
READY light should come on. 

4. Set the Tape Unit Selector switch to 1. The tape 
drive is now properly set up for control by the XDS-9300. 

5. Place the tape rerun deck and data cards into the 
card reader. This deck, consisting of approximately 30 



25 



c 



PULSE 1 



D 



OVERLAY GATED 



o 

TEXT 
EDIT 



o 



GRAPHICS 
EDIT 



o 



o 

END 
EDIT 



o 

NEXT 
BLOCK 



o 



PREVIOUS 
BLOCK 



o 

NEW 
BLOCK 



o 

GO 
EDIT 



o 



INCREASE 
SIZE 

CURSOR 

ON 



o 



o 



INCREASE X 
MOVE 



DECREASE 

SIZE 

CURSOR 0*F 

o 

DECREASE X 

ERaW 



O 



TRACK 
END-POINT 



o 

INCREASE Y 

SKETCH 



O 



REPEAT 
DASH/50LIB 



o 

DECREASE Y 

ERASE 



Figure 3 . Function Switches 

(GATED Overlay Shown) 



26 



cards, is located in the card file marked HELO SIMILATION. 
Execution of this deck causes the core dump to be placed 
into the XDS-9300 along with the data. 

6. Press the POWER ON and START switches on the card 
reader. The NOT READY light should go out, indicating 
that the card reader is ready to operate upon command from 
the XDS-9300 control console. 

7. Check the line printer to see if the READY light is 
on. If not, press the READY switch on the line printer. 

8. Select EXT on the XDS-9300 clock switch. The clock 
switch is located adjacent to the bottom row of circuit 
cards inside the number two panel of the XDS-9300 main- 
frame. The EXT position allows the timing frequency to 
conform to the frequency patched into the logic board of 
the CI-5000 computer. 

9. To load the digital program and link the three main 
computer systems, the following switches on the XDS-9300 
operator control console must be pressed. 

a. IDLE 

b. RESET 

c. RUN 

d . CARDS 

After executing the above sequence of instructions, the 
following things should occur; the card reader should 
begin feeding cards, the tape should be read into the 
XDS-9300, and the potsetting routine should begin setting 
the CI-5000 POTS automatically. The address window of 



27 



the CI-5000 will cycle through the POTS as they are set. 
POTS which cannot be accurately set by the POTSET sub- 
routine will be listed as error messages on the XDS-9300 
TTY. Those POTS listed in the error messages must be 
set manually. 

10. At the completion of the POTSET subroutine a message 
will appear on the TTY requesting an input for the desired 
AGT-10 system to be used. The appropriate AGT-10 can be 
selected by typing: IDEV = 1* or 2*. Press the RETURN 
key of the TTY. The integrated display pictured in 
Figure 1 should appear on the selected AGT-10 display 
console. A quick check, to see that the system is operat- 
ing correctly, can be made by moving the Digital Function 
switch, DS1, to the upper position. The pointer needles 
on the airspeed scale and VSI should begin to move. 
Return the display to start by pressing the following 
Digital Function switches in the order listed. 

a. DS2 - down momentarily 

b. DS1 - center 

c. DS4 - down momentarily 

11. Set up the TV camera. Position the camera in 
front of the AGT-10 screen. Attach the transmission 
cable to the VIDEO jack of the camera and plug the 
camera into the extension outlet. The transmission 
cable from the cockpit is located on the floor between 
the two AGT-10 consoles and is marked HELO SIMULATOR. 
Remove the lens cap and adjust the camera to the proper 
pos ition . 

28 



The TV camera may be used for other projects in the 
computer lab. Therefore, it may be necessary to readjust 
the various controls on the camera for proper signal trans 
mission. This can be accomplished by removing the TV 
repeater from the cockpit and bringing it into the main 
laboratory. A small jumper cable is located in the 
HELO SIMULATION card file drawer to permit direct hookup 
from the TV repeater to the TV camera. Adjust the camera 
as necessary to obtain the best picture, and mark the 
camera's position on the floor to preclude time con- 
suming set-up requirements for subsequent operations. 

E. COCKPIT SET-UP PROCEDURES 

1. Set the FLY switch to the down position. This 
switch is located on the right side console of the 
cockpit . 

2. Set the instrument display switch to INTEGRATED. 
The NORMAL position is for use of the regular conven- 
tional instrumentation [Ref. 5], 

3. Turn on the MASTER POWER, FLIGHT SYSTEM and DC POWER 
SUPPLY switches located at the rear of the cockpit. The 
circuit breaker located on the wall to the right of the 
cockpit may need to be turned on. 

4. Close the latching mechanism on the cockpit terminal 
patch board located at the rear of the cockpit. This 
patch board links the control potentionmeter signals to 
the appropriate trunklines for input to the CI-5000 com- 
puter . 

29 



5. Turn on the TV repeater in the cockpit. The simulator 
is now ready for operation. Each simulation run can be 
controlled in the cockpit or at the CI-5000 console by 
activating the following switches in sequence: 

a. FLY (DS1) switch on 

b. STOP RUN (DS2) switch on momentarily 

c. FLY (DS1) switch off 

d. RERUN (DS4) switch on momentarily 



30 



VI. SIMULATION SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES 

A. INTRODUCTION 

Many of the problems associated with the unsuccessful 
operation of the helicopter simulation system can be elimi- 
nated by careful adherence to the operating instructions and 
procedures contained in Section V and in Ref. 6. Most of 
the errors relating to the specific computer system involved 
can be corrected by referring to Ref. 6. The problems 
presented in this section are those which occurred most 
frequently during the helicopter simulation and those not 
covered specifically in Ref. 6. 

B. ANALOG COMPUTER PROBLEMS 
1. MANUAL POTSETTING 

There are several POTS which cannot be set accurately 
by the digital POTSET subroutine. Most frequently, those 
POTS are P000, P021, P035 and P042. After the POTSET 
subroutine finishes, press the KEYBOARD switch on the 
CI-5000 mode control keyboard. Press POTSET nad POT PS. 
Enter the desired address using the address keys. The 
address should appear in the ADDRESS window and the pre- 
sent value should appear in the RATIOMETER window. 
Press "+" and the desired four-digit POT value on the 
address keyboard. Then press the SERVO key. The POT 
value placed in the REFERENCE DAC should now appear in 



31 



the RATIOMETER window. If this method does not work, 
press the POT ADJUST key, and adjust the POT up or down 
by moving the SERVO SYSTEM POT switch located on the 
right side of the CI-5000 display console. This switch 
is very sensitive, therefore, careful movement is neces- 
sary to obtain the desired POT value. Press DIGITAL 
CMPTR to return control to XDS-9300. 

2. OSCILLATING INSTRUMENT DISPLAY 

If the display becomes unstable and oscillatory upon 
activation of the FLY (DS1) switch, the problem could 
be one of several hardware failures. The assistance of 
a laboratory technician will be needed. A problem in the 
addressing between the A/D or D/A converters could be 
present. Failure of the "conditional ground" of the 
CI-5000 caused unstable start-up oscillations in earlier 
simulation runs, requiring extensive troubleshooting by 
the lab technicians. 

3. AMPLIFIER OVERLOADS 

Overloaded amplifiers will cause incorrect signals 
to be present in the dynamic equations of motion. The 
overload condition is indicated by a light on the CI-5000 
display console. The overload can be cleared by entering 
the keyboard mode and pressing POTSET. If the amplifier 
overload cannot be corrected, additional troubleshooting 
of the suspected amplifier inputs may be necessary. The 
amplifiers may fail because of hardware circuit board 
problems. Therefore, the overloaded amplifier should be 



32 



checked for hardware failure prior to extensive patch 
board trouble shooting. Other patch board problems 
could be caused by partial pin insertion, open wires, 
or bent contacts behind the patch boards. 

C. GRAPHICS COMPUTER PROBLEMS 

1. GATED NOT EXECUTED 

Sometimes it is difficult to obtain proper execution 
of GATED during the graphics computer set-up sequence. 
If the message "FILE NOT DEFINED" appears on the graphics 
TTY after typing GATED!, Press PULSE 1 and retype GATED!. 
If GATED is not executed after several attempts, ask a 
laboratory technician for assistance. 

2. DISPLAY FAILURE DURING SIMULATION RUN 
Occasionally the CRT display will go blank during 

a simulation run. Retype GATED! , and continue the start- 
up checklist from step ten of the AGT-10 instructions to 
reload the digital computer program. If GATED cannot 
be executed, obtain the assistance of a laboratory 
technician. The program tape and data cards must be 
reloaded following a CRT graphics display failure. 

D. DIDITAL COMPUTER PROBLEMS 

Improper functioning of the XDS-9300 digital computer can 
be caused by many problems. The most common problems are 
listed along with the proper corrections in Ref. 6. Failure 
to have the peripheral systems in the ready condition usually 
causes an error message to be printed on the XDS-9300 TTY. 



33 



Simply readying the indicated component will, in most cases, 
clear the system for proper operation. 

1. SLOW POINTER MOVEMENT ON CRT DISPLAY 

If the altitude pointer on the CRT display moves too 
slowly or not at all, the XDS-clock switch is probably 
in the wrong position. Check to see that the clock switch 
is in the "EXT" position. 

2. CARD READER STOPS AFTER FIRST CARD 

Check to see that the first card in the deck is a 
"BOOT" card. If not, place a BOOT card on top and reload 
the deck. If the BOOT card is in place and the program 
will still not execute properly, depress IDLE. Then 
press the CLEAR and CLEAR FLAGS switches simultaneously. 
This procedure should clear the memory. 

Program failure could also occur if the Real Time 
Monitor (RTM) has been altered by a previous operator. 
To reload the RTM, execute the following procedures: 

a. Mount a "SYSLOAD" tape on a magnetic tape drive. 
This tape, labeled "RAD DUMP 7/26/74," is located in 
the tape rack on the left side of the XDS-9300 con- 
trol console. 

b. Set the Unit Select switch to "0". 

c. Advance the tape to the LOAD POINT. 

d. Set the Mode select switch to AUTOMATIC. Set the 
Mode Select switch on the other tape drive to MANUAL. 



34 



e. Press HALT, RESET, RUN, TAPE on the control con- 
sole. The RTM should now be loaded correctly. Re- 
wind and remove the SYSLOAD tape, and proceed with 
the simulation operating instructions. 

E. SIMULATOR COCKPIT PROBLEMS 

1. POWER DOES NOT COME ON 

The main power switch is located in the rear of the 
cockpit. If activiation of this switch fails to switch 
power to the cockpit, check the circuit breaker box on 
the wall to the right of the cockpit. Also, check 
circuit breaker number five, panel R5B, in Room 519. 

2. COLLECTIVE MECHANISM MISADJUSTED 

Rotation of the collective should cause a voltage 
change between +30 volts in the upmost position and -23 
volts in the lowest position. The collective mechanism 
can be misaligned by applying too much torque in either 
direction. An Allen wrench will be needed to realign 
the gear teeth for full range. The TV camera can be 
positioned in front of the CI-5000 display console to 
monitor the "RATIOMETER" for recalibration from the 
cockpit. Address T000 should be selected to monitor 
the trunkline which carries the collective voltage sig- 
nal . 



35 



VII. CONCLUSIONS 

As stated in Ref. 5, the simulation, as presently con- 
figured, becomes unstable as the helicopter reaches the 
hover position. Divergent pitch and roll oscillations make 
the helicopter laterally and directionally unstable. Several 
conditions could cause this instability due to pilot induced 
oscillations . 

Cycle time of the dynamic hybrid loop may be too long, 
resulting in pilot control inputs lagging display output 
commands. This problem could possibly be. alleviated by 
"feeding back" cyclic and collective rates to the stability 
augmentation inputs in the analog program. Investigation 
of the equations of motion, using a state variable analysis 
in the hover mode, could also yield some insight into the 
lateral-directional instability for the hovering conditions. 

The arrangement of the aircraft sensor information can be 
altered by changing the graphics and text portions of the 
digital program. The present arrangement offers some con- 
tinuity with the available sensor information. However, 
the increased availability of multipurpose computers in the 
future could improve the operational helicopter capabilities. 
For example, once the helicopter reaches the hover position, 
a "hover mode" selection switch could change the display for 
optimum hover control. Upon resumption of normal flight 



36 



conditions, the display mode could be switched back to a con- 
figuration to accommodate the navigational and control require 
ments of forward flight. 



37 





APPENDIX A 




ANALOG COMPUTER PROGRAM 


TOOO 


200 A0 C 


TOOl 


200AA ic 


T002 


100AB lc 


T003 


+30 VDC 


T004 


-30 vd: 


T005 


AIRSPEED 


T006 


BALL 


TOO? 


TURN NEEDLE 


TOIO 


HEADING 


TOll 


ALTIMETER 


TQlk 


RADAR ALTIMETER 


T015 


PITCH ATTITUDE 


TOl6 


ROLL ATTITUDE 


T017 


VERTICAL SPEED 


T020 


500 A0 R 


T023 


"FLY" 


T02^ 


"STOP 11 


T025 


"QUIT" 


T026 


"RERUN" 


T030 


COORDINATED TURN 


TOM 


"DISPLAY TYPE" 



TABLE AI. — USE OF TRUNK LINES 



38 



POT MCMHTR 


5=: IT INI 


000 


.0890 


ooi 


.4724 


002 


.1320 


003 


.2006 


004 


.0869 


005 


.1962 


006 


.0800 


010 


.0200 


on 


.1224 


012 


.2500 


013 


.1250 


014 


.0100 


015 


.0833 


016 


.0250 


017 


.7075 


020 


.7853 


021 


.0369 


022 


.1066 


023 


. 0241 


024 


.2000 


025 


.5000 


026 


.0285 


C27 


.0345 


030 


.4000 


031 


.1816 


TABLE All 


- ANALC 



POT NUMBER 


SETTIN3 


032 


.9127 


033 


.1021 


034 


.6062 


035 


.2598 


036 


.4000 


037 


.2500 


040 


.1039 


041 


.0018 


042 


.4692 


043 


.1186 


044 


.4C00 


045 


.1250 


046 


.6250 


047 


.2500 


050 


.3200 


051 


.1041 


052 


.2000 


053 


.1046 


054 


.1052 


055 


.1258 


056 


.5000 


400 


.2000 


401 


.2000 


436 


.3000 


437 


.3000 



ANALOG COMPUTER POTENTIOMETER SETTINGS 



39 



"FLY" 



+ 30. 



-20. 



o^ 



T023 



COO] p JN20l) 



DSI 



TIOO 



"STOP" 



-20. 



+ 30. 
o 



o^ 



T024- 



— | CO! 



> 



N202 



} 



DS2 



"QUIT" 
+ 30. 



-20. 



^ 



T025 



u 



CO?) ^N203) 



DS3 



"RERUN" 



-20. 



+ 30. 
o 



^ 



- JT026 



C07 







N204 



DS4 



"INTEGRATED" 



-20. 



+30 
O 



a* 

"NORMAL" 



TG4I 



C04 



o- 



N205 



p 



DS5 



SIMULATION CONTROL 



{tToj 



I!2Ll 



T104 



T105 1 



40 



T42! 



5XAU 



P005 



+ 100 



T 1 962V 



5XA0 



P004 



50 



L0869\ 



10 



P003 



iooab |CA ■ 




10 



T427 



-5g Sin d 




+.4U 



T502 



A0IG-SJ 



A200>— -.4U 



MOOI 



■25 R 
2V 

-2V 



25 Q 

2W 

-2W 



X 

Y 
-Y 




.5RV 



10 



MOOO 



X 

Y 

-Y 




.5QW 



10 




5XTHCU(A0 C > 



I 



X FORCE EQUATION 



41 



P027 



-2V 



-200P 



500 A0 R - 




+ 2V 



200R 




P022 



200AA 



ICA 




M004 



•250P 

2W 
-2W 

125R 

.4U 

-.4U 



X 

Y 
-Y 




+ 5RW 



MOOS 



X 

Y 
-Y 




-.5RU 



10 



A205>— -2V 



Y FORCE EQUATION 



42 



ZAU 



P054 




5Q 

P05I 
• 2OOA0 C 1 .1041 



2W 



2W 

2W 



T4021 



X 

X 




2WU(W) 



T430 



g Cos 4> Cot B 



M002 



250 

-.4U 

.4U 



SOP 

2V 
-2V 



X 
Y 

-Y 




M003 



X 

Y 

-Y 



tOOAB 
-IOOAB 



ICA- 



1CA 



T404 



X 

-X 



-100 




.1 QU 



10 




-PV 




.IZBICU 
(AB |CA ) 



A0I4 



10 



ZAO 



T5I0 



A20f> av; 



Z FORCE EQUATION 



43 




50 P 



200 P 



A034> -200 P 



T505 




P0I3 




-250P 



ROLL MOMENT EQUATION 



44 



T423 



P020 



OOMAU 

I 



-IOOO 



L7853}- 



P02I 



2OOA0 



c L0389)- 

P0I4 
LOIOOV 



I00AB, CA - 
-I00A8, CA H 



T400J 



X 

•X 



10 



P024 





-MBICU 
CABjca) 

10 




P025 




200Q 



-c 



rso4 



P0I6 




I00Q 



P0I2 



5Q 



A203> l00fi 




25 Q 



PITCH MOMENT EQUATION 



45 



P040 



50P 



-200 P 



200AA |CA 



500 A6 




200 R- 

•200 R — I 



— 200 R 



-200R 



125 R 



A207>— -25 R 



50 R 



YAW MOMENT EQUATION 



46 




100 £A 



ICA 



ROLL AUGMENTATION 



-186.2 9 




-186,2 




-I00A8 



T002 



IC 




IOOAB, CA 



-»OOAB |CA 



PITCH AUGMENTATION 



47 



-36.04* 



T432 



30 DARC 



10 



rd£lh 



c 



T020 



500 

£0* 





-500 &B 



RA 



5OOA0 



RA 



- T5I2 



YAW AUGMENTATION 



+ 30. 
O 



-20. 



TI02 



T030 



gN200)— 1 |n214 ) 




H (A055) 
O 



COORDINATED TURN 



48 




I9I<£ 



T426 



-19! ^ 




19 


* 


T0I6 




1 








T500 




1 



ROLL ANGLE 



T424 



-186.2 9 




186.2 a 



PITCH ANGLE 



TOO? 



T425 



236.5^ 




286.5 ^ 



- JTOIO } • 



P055 




-36.04 ^ 



YAW ANGLE 



49 



APPENDIX B 
DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM 













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71 



APPENDIX C 
DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM FORTRAN VARIABLES 



ABS 
ADK 

AIRNUM 

ALTNUM 

AMAX 

AMIN 

AROLL 
AS C ALE 

AS I 

ATAN 

AXE 

AYE 



Absolute value -- intrinsic subprogram. 

External subprogram used to perform analog to 
digital conversion. 

Airspeed numbers -- array containing the numbers 
for the airspeed scale. 

Altimeter numbers -- array containing the num- 
bers for the radar altimeter scale. 

Maximum value of two arguments -- intrinsic 
subprogram. 

Minimum value of two arguments -- intrinsic 
subprogram . 

Absolute value of ROLL. 

Angle scale -- scale factor for converting an 
angle to a linear displacement. 

Airspeed indicator -- scaled value of airspeed 
sent to cockpit indicator. 

Arctangent -- intrinsic subprogram. 

Absolute value of XI. 

Absolute value of YE. 



BASE 



BETA 



Base -- length of the base of the triangular 
pointers used in the integrated display. 

Sideslip angle. 



CMPNUM 
COMPUTE 



Compass numbers -- array containing the numbers 
for the compass scale. 

External subprogram used to place the analog 
computer in the "compute" mode. 



72 



COS 

COSPHI 

COSPSI 

COSTHE 

CREW 

CRWDIR 



Cosine -- intrinsic subprogram. 

Cosine of PHI. 

Cosine of PSI. 

Cosine of THETA. 

Crew -- subprogram which generates directions 
from a simulated rescue aircrewman. 

Crew directions -- array containing crew 
directions . 



Dl 

D2 

DA1C 
DAC 

DALT 

DCMPS 

DDVI 

DGINIT 

DL 

DRVNAM 

DRV 

DRVTAB 

DS 



Length of a scale mark on the compass heading 
scale . 

Length of a scale mark on the compass heading 
scale . 

A, -- change in lateral cyclic, radians. 

External subprogram used to perform digital 
to analog conversion. 

Altimeter division -- distance between divisions 
of the radar altimeter scale. 

Compass division -- distance between divisions 
of the compass heading scale. 

Direction velocity indicator division -- distance 
between divisions of the direction velocity 
indicator scale. 

Graphics initialization subroutine. 

Long displacement -- length of a long scale mark. 

Derivative name -- array containing the names 
of the stability derivatives. 

Derivative -- array containing the airspeed 
dependent stability derivaties for a speci- 
fied airspeed. 

Derivative table -- array containing the airspeed 
dependent stability derivaties for several 
airspeeds . 

Short displacement -- length of a short scale 
mark. 



73 



DSPD 
DSPLY 

DT 

DTHR 

DTHRC 

DTINIT 
DTURN 

DVSI 



Speed division -- distance between divisions 
of the airspeed scale. 

Display -- subprogram which generates the 
static portions of the integrated instru- 
ment display. 

Time interval. 

9tv . -- change in tail rotor pitch, radians. 

Value of 9 R required to maintain zero side- 
slip flight. 

Text initialization rubroutine. 

Turn division -- distance between marks of the 
turn indicator. 

Vertical speed indicator division -- distance 
between divisions of the vertical speed 
indicator. 



EPS 



Small angle. 



FLTIM 
FLY 



Flight time. 

Fly -- subprogram which generates information 
for and controls the solution of the helicop 
ter dynamics . 



GCOSPH 
GRAPHO 

GSINPH 
GSINTH 



Factor in Z-Force equation. 

Graphics output -- external subprogram, used 
to output a graphics array to the graphics 
processor. 

Factor in Y-Force equation. 

Factor in X-Force equation. 



HGT 



Height -- height of the triangular pointers 
used in the integrated display. 



74 



HOLD 



HOVTIM 



External subprogram used to place the analog 
computer in the "hold" mode. 

Hover time -- elapsed time within a specified 
distance from the target. 



I 
IALT 

IALTP 

IBALL 

IBANK 

IB LANK 

ICMPS 

ICOMP 

ICOPS 

IDEV 
IDVI 

IDVIL 

IER 

IFLAG 
IGD 



Integer counter. 

Altimeter -- graphics data array for the radar 
altimeter scale. 

Altimeter pointer -- graphics data array for 
the radar altimeter pointer. 

Ball -- graphics data array for the slip 
indicator ball . 

Bank angle -- graphics data array for the 
attitude gyro angle of bank pointer. 

Blank -- graphics data array used to blank out 
another graphics data array. 

Compass -- graphics data array for the compass 
heading scale. 

Compass -- text array for the compass heading 
numbers . 

Initial character position -- fixes the lateral 
position on the graphics display of the first 
character in a text array. 

Device number -- the number 1 or 2 which speci- 
fies the graphics processor to be used. 

Direction velocity indicator -- graphics data 
array for the direction velocity indicator 
scales . 

Direction velocity indicator lines -- graphics 
data array for the direction velocity indi- 
cator speed lines. 

Error parameter returned after calls to DGINIT, 
DTINIT, GRAPHO or TEXTO. 

Integer counter -- counts number of times through 
dynamic loop in FLY. 

Graphics directory -- argument of DGINIT. 



75 



IHBAR 
I HEAD 
IHDG 
IMAP 

INDYM 

INT 

INST 

IPACK 

IPSI 
IPBAR 

ISLIP 

ISPD 

ISPDP 

ITD 
I TURN 

I TURN I 

IVGI 

IVSI 



Horizon bar -- graphics data array for the 
attitude gyro artificial horizon line. 

External subprogram used to generate the 
first word of a graphics array. 

Heading -- graphics data array for the compass 
heading pointer. 

Miniature airplane -- graphics data array for 
the attitude gyro miniature airplane 
reference. 

Instrument dynamics -- graphics data array for 
the moving (dynamic) portions of the instru- 
ment display. 

Converts a number to an integer -- intrinsic 
subprogram. 

Instrument -- subprogram which generates the 
dynamic portions of the integrated display. 

External subprogram used to generate words of 
a graphics array. 

PSI converted to integer value. 

Pitch bar -- graphics data array for the 
attitude gyro pitch line. 

Slip -- graphics data array for the slip 
indicator center marks . 

Speed -- graphics data array for the airspeed 
scale . 

Speed pointer -- graphics data array for the 
airspeed pointer. 

Text directory -- argument of DTINIT. 

Turn -- graphics data array for the turn 
indicator scale. 

Turn indicator -- graphics data array for the 
turn needle. 

Vertical gyro indicator -- graphics data array 
for the attitude gyro angle of bank scale. 

Vertical speed indicator -- graphics data 

array for the vertical speed indicator scale 



76 



IVSIP 

IX 
IY 



Vertical speed indicator pointer -- graphics 
data array for the vertical speed indicator 
pointer. 

Integer X -- integer value of XE . 

Integer Y -- integer value of YE. 



J 
JFLAG 



Integer counter. 

Integer flag used to control accumulation of 
hover time. 



K 

K2 

KFLAG 

KSAV 



Integer counter 

Integer value retained for later comparison. 

Integer flag used to control accumulation of 
RMS performance parameters. 

K save -- saves value of K for later comparison. 



L 

LN 

LNO 
LVTJ 



Integer counter. 

Line number -- specifies line position of a 
text block. 

Same as LN except refers to initial line. 

L (u) -- partial derivative of rolling moment 



MAU 
MB1CU 



M. (u) -- partial derivative of pitching moment. 

Mr, (u) -- partial derivative of pitching moment 
B i 
lc 



NBLK 
NGD 

NRU 



Block number -- refers to graphics data blocks. 

Number of words in the graphics directory -- 
argument of DGINIT. 

N D (u) -- partial derivative of yawing moment. 

R 



77 



NTD 

NULL 
NVU 



Number of words in the text directory -- argir 
ment of DTINIT. 

Null -- text array of blank spaces. 

N y (u) -- partial derivative of yawing moment. 



P 

PHI 

PHI DOT 

PHIDTS 

PITCH 

POTSET 

PSI 

PSIDEG 
PSIDOT 
PSIDTS 



P -- pitch rate. 
0-- roll angle. 


• 

scaled for the analog computer. 

9 limited to + 50° . 

Subprogram which places the analog computer in 
the POTSET mode. 

ty - - yaw angle 

i|> scaled to degrees. 

} 

i> scaled for the analog computer. 



q -- roll rate 



R r -- yaw rate. 

RO Initial radius -- radial distance from the 

center of the attitude gyro to the angle of 
bank scale marks. 

RADALT Radar altimeter -- scaled value of altitude 

sent to cockpit radar altimeter. 

RB Radius to base -- radial distance from the 

center of the attitude gyro to the base of 
the triangular angle of bank pointer. 

READCLOCK External subprogram used to read the present 

value of the analog computer clock. 



78 



RESET 
RL 

RMSTIM 

ROLL 

RP 



Reset -- subprogram which places analog computer 
in Reset mode. 

Radial line -- length of the radial line segment 
used for the attitude gyro angle of bank 
scale marks. 

Root mean square time -- time interval used to 
compute performance parameters . 

Roll -- angular position of the attitude gyro 
angle of bank scale marks. 

Radius to point -- radial distance from the 
center of the attitude gyro to the point of 
the angle bank pointer. 



SETLINES 

SETPOT 

SCALE 

SIN 

SINPHI 

SINPSI 

SINTHE 

SQRT 

STARTCLOCK 

STOPCLOCK 



External subprogram used to set analog computer 
logic . 

External subprogram used to set the analog 
computer potentiometers . 

Scale -- multiplying factor to convert + 5 
inches to +_ 1 units for graphics processor. 

Sine -- intrinsic subprogram. 

Sine of PHI. 

Sine of PSI. 

Sine of THETA. 

Squre root -- intrinsic subprogram. 

External subprogram used to start the analog 
computer clock. 

External subprogram used to stop the analog 
computer clock. 



TEST 



TEXTO 



THE DOT 



External subprogram used to test the logic of 
specified analog trunk lines. 

External subprogram used to output a text 
array to the graphics processor. 

9 



79 



THEDTS 

THETA 

THETIC 

TNEW 

TOLD 



9 scaled for the analog computer 
9 -- pitch angle. 
Initial condition on 0. 
New time. 
Old Time. 



U 
Ul 

U2 

UK 
UKTS 



u -- forward velocity. 

Value of airspeed used in the linear inter 
polation subroutine. 

Value of airspeed used in the linear inter' 
polation subroutine. 

u scaled to knots. 

u scaled to knots. 



V 

VI 

V2 

VX 

VXRMS 

VY 
VYRMS 

VZ 
VZRMS 

vzs 



v -- lateral velocity. 

Intermediate calculation for VX and VY . 

Intermediate calculation for VX and VY. 

Inertial velocity along the x-axis. 

Root mean square value of VX . Used as a 
performance parameter. 

Inertial velocity along the y-axis. 

Root mean square value of VY . Used as a 
performance parameter. 

Inertial velocity along hte z-axis. 

Root mean square value of VZ . Used as a per 
formance parameter. 

VZ scaled for the analog computer. 



W 



WRITECLOCK 



w 



vertical velocity. 



External subprogram used to set the analog 
computer clock to a specified value. 



80 



X 

xo 

XOALT 

XODVI 

XODVI 

XOHDG 

XOSLIP 

XOSPD 

XOTURN 

XOVSI 

XAU 

SCEN 

XE 

XERMS 

XLEFT 

XP 

XPALT 
XPSPD 
XPVSI 
XRIGHT 

XTHGU 



x coordinate position used for graphics construe 
tion. 

X initial -- initial x coordinate position 
used for graphics construction. 

XO for the radar altimeter scale. 

XO for the radar altimeter scale. 

XO for the direction velocity indicator scale. 

XO for the compass heading pointer. 

XO for the slip indicator scale. 

XO for the airspeed scale. 

XO for the turn rate scale. 

XO for the vertical speed scale. 

X.(u) -- aerodynamic force in the X direction. 

x center -- x coordinate position for the 
center of the attitude gyro. 

x earth -- x coordinate position of the heli- 
copter in the inertial reference axes. 

XE root mean square -- used as a performance 
parameter. 

x left -- x coordinate position of the left 
end of the direction velocity indicator 
speed line. 

x pointer -- x coordinate position for the 
point of a scale pointer. 

XP for the radar altimeter scale pointer. 

XP for the airspeed scale pointer. 

XP for the vertical speed scale pointer. 

x right -- x coordinate position for the right 
end of the direction velocity indicator 
speed line. 

X Q (u) -- partial derivative of X force. 

C 



81 



YO 

YOALT 

YODVI 

YOHDG 

YOSLIP 

YOSPD 

YOTURN 

YOVSI 

YBOT 

YCEN 
YE 

YE RMS 
YP 
YTOP 



y coordinate position used for graphics 
construction. 

y initial -- initial x coordinate position used 
for graphics construction. 

YO for the radar altimeter scale. 

YO for the direction velocity indicator scale. 

YO for the compass heading pointer. 

YO for the slip indicator scale. 

YO for the airspeed scale. 

YO for the turn rate scale. 

YO for the vertical speed scale. 

y bottom -- y coordinate position for the 

bottom end of the direction velocity indicator 
speed line. 

y center -- y coordinate position for the cen- 
ter of the attitude gyro. 

y earth -- y coordinate position of the helicop- 
ter in the inertial reference axes . 

YE root mean square -- used as a performance 
parameter . 

y pointer -- y coordinate position for the 
point of a scale pointer. 

y top -- y coordinate position for the top 
end of the direction velocity indicator 
speed line. 



ZAU 
ZB1CU 

ZE 



Z A (u) 



■B 



lc 



- aerodynamic force along z axis . 
(u) -- partial derivative of z force. 



z earth - z coordinate position for the heli- 
copter in the inertial reference axes 
(altitude) . 



82 



ZEIC ZE initial condition -- starting value of ZE 

ZERMS ZE root mean square -- used as a performance 

parameter . 

ZES ZE scaled for the analog computer. 

ZWU Zyr(u) -- partial derivative of z force. 



83 



APPENDIX D 
HELICOPTER SIMULATION SYSTEM CHECKLIST 

ANALOG SET-UP 

1. Install Patch Boards (#8) on CI-5000 (HANDLES UP) 

2. Turn CI-5000 on 

3. Set POT 400 to +20.00 Volts 

4. Set POT 401 to +20.00 Volts 

5. Set POT 437 to +30.00 Volts 

6. Set Limiters LOO and L07 to + 1.0 Volts 

7. Center all Digital Function Switches 

8. Press "DIGITAL CMPTR" Mode Switch 

AGT-10 SET-UP 

1. Turn on XDS-9300 

2. Place "OLD AMOS" discs on appropriate AGT-10 disc drive 

3. Turn Disc Drive on - "READY" light should come on 

4. Turn on "THIS IS IT" switch at back of AGT-10 Mainframe 

5. Press HALT, RESET, RUN, PULSE 1 on OCP 

6. "MO/DA/YR" should appear at teletype - if not, follow 
bootstrap loading instructions attached to AGT-10 OCP 

7. Type 7/7/77, press "return" 

8. Type RESET ("GATED", 101)! 

9. After TTY returns, type GATED! 



84 



10. To check that GATED is properly loaded, press upper left 
function switch on the function switch console. (The 
message "TEXT BLOCK SELECT MODE BLOCK 1" should appear 
on the lower edge of the screen.) 

XDS-9300 SET-UP 

1. Load "HELO SIMULATION" tape on either of the two tape 
drives 

2. Run tape forward to "LOAD POINT" 

5. Set Mode Selector switch to "AUTOMATIC" 

4. Set Tape Unit Selector switch to "1" 

5. Place tape rerun and data cards in card reader 

6. Press "POWER ON" and "START" on card reader ("NOT READY" 
light should go out) 

7. Press "READY" button on line printer if ready light 
not on 

8. Select "EXT" on XDS-9300 clock switch 

9. Press "RESET", "RUN", "CARDS", on XDS-9300 control console 

10. When teletypewriter message is received, select appro- 
priate AGT-10 by typing "IDEV = 1 or 2*" and press 
"RETURN" key 

11. Set up TV camera 

COCKPIT SET-UP 

1. Set "FLY" switch in down position 

2. Set instrument display switch to "INTEGRATED" 

3. Turn on "MASTER POWER", "FLIGHT SYSTEM", and "DC POWER 
SUPPLY" switches at rear of cockpit 

85 



4. Close latching mechanism on cockpit terminal patch board 

5 . Turn on TV repeater 



86 



LIST OF REFERENCES 

1. Stein, K. J., "Helicopter Control Concepts Emerging," 

Aviation Week and Space Technology , v. 103, no. 15, 
p. 44-51, 13 October 1975. 

2. Sweeney, C. J., Conversion of AC-11B Instrument Flight 

Trainer into a Variable Stability Flight Simulator , 
Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, 
California, September 1968. 

3. Huckemeyer, M. R. , Incorporation of the Six Dimensional 

Linearized Equations of Motion with a Variable Sta- 
bility Flight Simulator , Masters Thesis, Naval 
Postgraudate School, Monterey, California, September 
1971. 

4. Hoxie , S. S., The Implementation of a Fixed Base Heli- 

copter Simulation in the Investigation of an Auto- 
matic Scan System , Engineers Thesis, Naval Postgraduate 
School, Monterey, California, March 1974. 

5. Ammerman, L. R. , Evaluation of an Integrated Electronic 

Instrument Display for Helicopter Hover Operations 
Using a Six-Degree-of -Freedom Fixed-Base Simulation , 
Masters Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, 
California, March 1975. 

6 . Naval Postgraduate School Computer Laboratory, Manual 

for the Fortran User , Naval Postgraduate School, 
Monterey, California, 1975. 



87 



INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 



No. Copies 



1. Defense Documentation Center 2 
Cameron Station 

Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

2. Library, Code 0142 2 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

3. Department Chairman, Code 6 7 1 
Department of Aeronautics 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 

4. Associate Professor D. M. Layton, Code 67Ln 3 
Department of Aeronautics 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 

5. LT William Woodrow Fetzer, Jr., USN 1 
305 Center Street 

Millville, Pennsylvania 17846 



88 



-ru • 1 7^ 7&U 

Thesis .. I I O-t 

F2695 Fetzer 

c.l Evaluation of and 

operational procedures 
for a helicopter simu- 
lation system utilizing 
an integrated electron- 
ic instrument display. 



Ttt 




Thesis 

F2695 
c.l 



Fetzer 

Evaluation of and 
operational procedures 
for a helicopter simu- 
lation system utilizing 
an integrated electron- 
ic instrument display. 



thesF2695 

Evaluation of and operational procedures 




3 2768 002 06573 2 

DUDLEY KNOX LIBRARY